History of Intel Graphics card



   This article is about the history of Intel's graphics and display chips based on hardware collections. In order to reflect the authority of this article, the intel graphics cards in the text are mostly representative engineering samples from myself and Tibetan friends. Thanks to the computer hardware collection, such rare computer hardware can get rid of destruction.
   This article introduces the history of Intel graphics cards into four periods. 
1. 12 years of drifting ( 1977-1988 ) 
   Intel's original graphics card is for VIDEO/GRAPHICS MODULE on Intel Single Board Computers, a display module with display capabilities. Although it is only the prototype of the graphics card, it has an important position in the history of Intel graphics. After Intel released several display chips, it was used by many manufacturers to make graphics cards, but Intel still disdain to enter the PC graphics market, because Intel's business focus at this time is memory and processor. 
1.1 8275 Chip

C8275 Engineering sample


  Pictured above is Intel's first display-related chip C8275 CRT Controller, which is an engineering sample chip with a date of 7735, indicating that the C8275 chip first appeared in the 35th week of 77 (late mid-August). Used in Intel's iSBX270 VIDEO DISPLAY CONTROLLER MULTIMODULE Board. The iSBX 270 VDC contains 4K bytes of high speed static RAM.




Processor II 2217605132


  The iSBX270 was well-known in the past and was also used on the Processor II 2217605132 Multibus card from non-intel Machine Technology Inc.



   Later, Intel also introduced the 8275 chip upgrade version 8276 chip.It is small system CRT controller. It is meant to interface CRT raster scan displays with Intel 8085, 8086, 8088 microprocessors and 8051 single chip microcomputer. It has 4 types of cursor control, programmable screen and character format, 6 independent visual field attributes. It contains all necessary counters,buffers, raster timing circuitry and video control, etc. 

1.2 82720 Chip

 Launched in 1982 iSBX275 VIDEO GRAPHICS CONTROLLER MULTIMODULE Board.The iSBX275 VGC contains 32K bytes of high speed display memory.



   Some people think that the iSBX275 is INTEL's first graphics card. Perhaps this view is from Intel Corporation annual report 1982:“The 82720 Graphics Display Controller enhances both development and execution speed of color graphics applications, making high quality color graphics affordable for general purpose business systems. It is the first in Intel's family of high-performance CRT controllers.”
 In 1981, after entering the PC era, intel did not immediately intervene in the field of PC graphics. Because Intel's main business is CPU, and Intel Single Board Computers an important task is to test and evaluate the CPU.  

 iSBC 86


    NEC started the 7220 project in 1979 and released μPD7220 in 1981.NEC’s µPD7220 was the first integrated graphics controller chip.The chip aincorporated all the CRT control functions (known as the CRTC) as well as graphics primitives for arcs, lines, circles and special characters.At that time, the μPD7220 was very advanced. Intel was used to improve the display performance of the system. The μPD7220 directly cloned NEC was 82720.Announced in 1982, it was the first of what would become a long line of Intel graphics processing units.


    The 82720 chip is also used in computer graphics cards, 1.13.120301-I4 graphics card of Robotron EC-1834.


1.3 82730 Chip

 In 1982, Intel introduced the 82730 chip. The Intel System Development Kit SDK-186 has 82730 chips. 82730 chip is Text coprocessor:Supports high-quality text displays with proportional spacing, subscript/superscript, character attributes, etc.Supports high-quality graphics with manipulation and display of bitmap strings.
 The picture above shows the C82730 chip used on the REGNECENTRALEN RC759 PICCOLINE computer. Intel 80186 (or 80186) is Intel's embedded market for industrial control/communication. It is very rare for PCs like this, let alone the 82730 chip application. 




(Source from http://www.old-computers.com collectibles)


1.4 82716 Chip
 The 82716 chip appeared in 1984.It is a video storage and display device. It is a low cost, highly integrated video controller. It displays texts and graphics. It can manage upto 16 display objects on the screen at any time. It can select upto 16 colours from a range of 4096.It contains on-chip DRAM controller and on-chip D/A converters. It can support upto 512 KB of display memory. It is compatible with 8.and 16-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers.
  I have not seen the graphics card of the 82716 chip, maybe it is used on professional equipment. 



(Image courtesy of hitech-components from eBay.com)

1.5 82786 Chip
 In 1986, Intel introduced the 82786 chip, the first discrete graphics coprocessor. The 82786 integrates a graphics processor, a display processor with a CRT controller, a bus interface unit (BIU), and its DRAM/VRAM controller. Support 4 MB of DRAM / VRAM memory. Supporting up to 256 colors, systems with multiple 82786 designs can support virtually unlimited colors and resolutions.
 The 82786 chip is used in the iSBX279 of the Intel Single Board Computers system.



(from http://www.intel-vintage.info)

  The A82786 chip has also been produced by many manufacturers, such as the NUMBER NINE Pepper graphics card of the ISA interface of the PC system.



    It is a CHMOS graphics coprocessor. It is compatible with all Intel microprocesors. It can support multiple graphics applications from multiple graphics bitmaps. It has high speed character drawing, fast polygon and line drawing capability. It can support upto 200 MHZ CRTs. It provides upto 256 simultaneous colours. It contains DRAM/VRAM controller for graphics memory upto 4 MB. It contains shift registers and DMA channels. It is a powerful device developed for microcomputer applications including PCs, engineering workstations, terminals and laser printers. High integration makes it cost-effective.

1.6 i750 Chip
  Intel's i750 chip consists of i750PA (82750PA pixel processor) and i750DA (82750DA display processor). The technical parameters are:The 82750PA is a 25 MHz wide instruction processor that generates and manipulates pixels. When paired with its companion chip, the 82750DA, and used to implement a DVI Technology video subsystem, the 82750PA provides real time (30 images/sec) pixel processing, real time video compression, interactive motion video playback and real time video effects.
 Intel's i750PA/DA chip was made in December 1986. The i750 design is so advanced that it is only viewed by DVI Technology (Digital Video Interactive), with the DVI (Digital Video Interactive) concept (all digital sound, text, graphics processing system, can support a variety of multimedia information sources and information formats.) Developed a DVI Pro 750 graphics card. Intel is optimistic about this concept and is more optimistic about the development prospects of digital multimedia technology. On November 14, 1988, it acquired the pioneer of digital media DVI Technology.
 The picture below shows the main card of the DVI/intel Pro 750 graphics card. The full set has 3 ISA interface boards and 3 daughter cards.

Pro 750 Engineering sample


    The full DVI/intel Pro 750 is at least 3 boards (Video, Audio, Utility/CD-ROM) and 3 daughter cards(Video Digitizer, Audio Digitizer, 4MB of VRAM memory) “actually three boards (Video, Audio, Utility/CD-ROM) in three slots (with possible overhang), plus add-in piggyback modules for a Video Digitizer, Audio Digitizer, and 2 GB of VRAM memory.” DVI/intel Pro 750.

    In my collection of DVI/intel Pro 750 engineering samples, the date is the Utility card and the PCB date is 8809. Explain that in March of the same year, DVI has produced the Pro 750 prototype card, but it was not officially released by INTEL and Microsoft until July 21, 1989.

1.7 KAMA 芯片
 See only the Vlask collection of Intel Kama graphics cards from http://www.vgamuseum.info.


Failed to find information about the KAMA chip. However, it is judged from the shape and label of the chip that it is associated with the i750DB chip.
     The KAMA chip is labeled as:
     KAMA SX094
     K8909B-25 V1.6
     INTEL m © '87
     Can be seen:
     1.The "-25" in K8909B-25 has a meaning of 25MHz. It can be seen that it is also a display processor.
     2. I9082207 shows that the production date is 08th week of the year 89.
     3, INTEL m © '87, indicating the development of 87 years, i750DA, PGA pin structure developed later than 86 years. In 1989, the i750DB chip was upgraded to the PQFP patch structure.
 It can be seen that the KAMA chip is based on the i750DB chip and is improved using the DRAM memory display chip.Also similar to the 82706 chip. 


1.8 82706 Chip
 Intel launched 82706 in 1988. It is an Intel video graphics array(VGA)compatible display controller for IBM PC/XT/AT and PS/. All video monitors developed for IBM PS/2 system are provided with VGA controller. The 82706 can support 256 KB video memory. It is designed to be compatible with 80286 and 80386 and other microprocessors. It has EGA/CGA/MDA BIOS compatibility. It acts as CRT controller and video memory controller.
 Hercules VGA card is made by Hercules with this chip.

Hercules VGA


1.9 i860 Chip
 On February 27, 1989, Intel launched the i860. At that time, i860 was the most advanced 64 bit microprocessor, adopting RISC design technology, which was a general-purpose high-performance microprocessor. It integrates the core components of integer RISC, floating-point processing, page memory management, instruction cache, data cache and 3D image processing into a VLSI microprocessor. In short, i860 is like core I3 / i5 in 20 years. Advanced design leads to its high price, and its graphics card only appears in the high-end professional field.  



2. The first fledgling (1989-1996) 
  I introduced the i750 chip in the previous section. After Intel acquired DVI, the DVI Pro750 graphics card was renamed Intel Pro750. However, INTEL is very dissatisfied with the design of the PRO 750 graphics card, and re-developed the ACTIONMEDIA series of graphics cards, thus officially entering the field of PC graphics.
 The Intel i750 graphics card project lasted for 6 years and it is obvious that it is doing its best. In order to expand the impact, even with the PC giant IBM. Unfortunately, in the era of the heroes, Intel's efforts still have no breakthroughs, gradually disappeared. So senior hardware enthusiasts only think that Intel's first graphics card starts with the i740 chip... 

2.1 ACTIONMEDIA 750 Series Graphics Card
 ACTIONMEDIA can be understood as universal media. The first generation of ACTIONMEDIA graphics cards was the migration of Intel Pro 750 commercial digital media development technology to the consumer consumption digital multimedia graphics card ACTIONMEDIA 750.
2.1.1 ACTIONMEDIA 750 Prototype Card DS1AT
 In March 1987, a chip evaluation board for the i750 chip, codenamed Tower, was made.The i750 product evaluation board DS1 was not developed until 1989.The CS1 Delivery Board is matched with the DS1Capture Board.
 DS1-AT is the ISA interface version prototype card. This board is missing the original i750 chip, specially purchased the Intel i750PA/DA chip, and the other two are missing VLSI VTG8001/8002.

  DS1-AT Prototype



  The board below is a blank PROTOTYPE board without a chip.Also very rare.

  DS1-AT PCB Board



2.1.2 ACTIONMEDIA 750 ISA Version Engineering Sample
 The ACTIONMEDIA 750 attracted widespread attention after its display at the COMDEX/Fall '89 show from November 13 to 17, 1989.

  ACTIONMEDIA 750 Engineering Sample



 2.1.3 ACTIONMEDIA 750 MCA Version Engineering Sample
 The MCA interface ACTIONMEDIA 750 DVI once appeared on behalf of the ACTIONMEDIA series on March 5, 1990, "INFO WORLD", the only ACTIONMEDIA 750 DVI picture that can be seen on the Internet.

   ACTIONMEDIA 750 MCA Version Engineering Sample


 At that time, both Intel Pro 750 and ACTIONMEDIA 750 were "Only available in limited quantities", making it difficult to see pictures of these products. 
 The picture below shows the boxed ACTIONMEDIA 750, with a lot of floppy disks, CDs and manuals attached.

ACTIONMEDIA 750 Qualified Product

  The ACTIONMEDIA 750 documentation contains the prototype card information for ACTIONMEDIA II. It can be seen that the ACTIONMEDIA 750 is just a transitional product. This buyer spent $9,998 to buy but has never used it.
 The following is a schematic diagram of the connection used. It can be seen that the ACTIONMEDIA 750 can be used as a discrete graphics card.


    The ACTIONMEDIA 750 documentation contains the prototype card information for ACTIONMEDIA II. It can be seen that the ACTIONMEDIA 750 is just a transitional product. This buyer spent $9,998 to buy but has never used it.
 The following is a schematic diagram of the connection used. It can be seen that the ACTIONMEDIA 750 can be used as a discrete graphics card.

    The boxed ACTIONMEDIA 750 has 3 boxes, which are quite large. Below is a comparison of the boxed cards of the ACTIONMEDIA series. The first column is ACTIONMEDIA 750, and the second and third columns are the ACTIONMEDIA II and Smart video Recorder in the next section.


2.2 ACTIONMEDIA II Series Graphics Card
 In the late 1980s, the patch manufacturing process of the board was mature, and intel was naturally the leader. The i750PA/DA chip of the PGA pin structure is upgraded to the i750PB/DB chip of the PQFP chip structure, and the chip package is changed from a gold seal to a plastic package.
2.2.1 INTEGRATOR Chip Evaluation board
 Based on the mature design of the previous generation, the chip evaluation board INTEGRATOR was developed. So the INTEGRATOR looks like the ACTIONMEDIA 750 DVI for the replace chip, or the CS1 card.

INTEGRATOR Chip Evaluation board


 The ISA interface version of the detachable Chip Evaluation board INTEGRATOR's two i750PB/DB chips are ES.


2.2.2 INTEGRATOR Chip Evaluation Board MCA Version 
 The figure below shows the INTEGRATOR of the MCA interface version. The i750PB/DB ES chip date is very early.

  INTEGRATOR Chip Evaluation board MCA Version


2.2.3 DS2AT Product Evaluation board
 ACTIONMEDIA II was released on October 17, 1991 and was exhibited at COMDEX Fall '91 on October 21-25, 1991 and won the Best of Show Award and Best Multimedia Product Award. Intel's ACTIONMEDIA II graphics card is to further optimize the structure of the ACTIONMEDIA 750 DVI primary and secondary cards as the main daughter card structure, and also designed three QFP-structured i750 series auxiliary chips for the i750PB/DB chip. These 5 chips are:
 82750PB pixel processor

    82750DB display processor

    82750LA Keying and Audio Gate Array (KAGA)

    82750LH Host Interface Gate Array (HIGA)

    82750LV VRAM SCSI Capture Gate Array (VSCGA)

DS2AT Product Evaluation board  


CS2 Prototype

 2.2.4 DS2MCA Product Evaluation board
 The ACTIONMEDIA II Product Evaluation board is codenamed DS2. The following MCA interface version ACTIONMEDIA II is DS2MCA, which has five i750 chips. The i750PB/DB is obviously the ES version. The only three codes of the ceramic seal are not the unlabeled models. It is the ES chip of the early i750LA/LH/LV.

   DS2MCA Product Evaluation board


2.2.5 ACTIONMEDIA II Engineering Sample ISA Version

  ACTIONMEDIA II Engineering Sample ISA Version


2.2.6 ACTIONMEDIA II Engineering Sample MCA Version

  ACTIONMEDIA II Engineering Sample MCA Version


CS2 Engineering Sample

2.2.7 ACTIONMEDIA II Qualified Product

  ACTIONMEDIA II Qualified Product

Capture module


2.3 ACTIONMEDIA III Series Graphics Card
  Around 92 years, Intel began to develop ACTIONMEDIA III.ACTIONMEDIA III was originally designed to be the same as the ACTIONMEDIA II as the main daughter card structure, and later adjusted to a single card.
2.3.1 QUARK Chip Evaluation Board
 ACTIONMEDIA III should update the i750PB/DB and launch the i750PC/DC Chip Evaluation board. In fact, it is an evaluation of the update of the auxiliary chip. Presumably, the chip to be evaluated integrates the functions of the original 82750LA, 82750LH, and 82750LV3 chips. The chip to be evaluated should be i750SN, which will be introduced later.

   QUARK Chip Evaluation Board


2.3.2 QUARK II Chip Evaluation Board

  QUARK II Chip Evaluation Board


    QUARK's REV 2 version compared with the above REV 1 version, QUARK's REV 2 version of the chip evaluation board is about one-third wider than the REV 1 version of the standard ISA full-length board, the extra place is loaded two One function, one on the right, is the function chip evaluation board area of ​​the daughter card, and the function of the daughter card is directly extended on the main card. As the integration level is improved and the memory is processed in two slots, the ISA interface master card has enough functions to directly accommodate the daughter card, and the daughter card function can be cut by the empty soldering。
 Chip evaluation board QUARK 2.5 chip in order i750PB, i750DB, F122164PPM and TC160G54ES, this TC160G54ES chip is very special, Intel not only set a PGA chip socket on the graphics card, but also equipped with a DVI THUMPER secondary card to deploy. This interface has not been made on the QUARK 2.5 graphics card, but the above socket can be indirectly debugged using Altera's EPM7192GC160-1 PGA chip that has been processed by the DVI THUMPER secondary card.

  QUARK II Chip Evaluation Board & DVI THUMPER

    The i750 chip project began in 1986 with the i750PA/DA chip, and finally the 1993 i750PD chip, which lasted 8 years. The i750 chip was undoubtedly excellent at the beginning of its birth. Intel did not update or replace the PCI interface. In the latter stage, its excellent performance index became a congenital deficiency. In the end, it had no potential to be dug and had to end. The 2D graphics project of Intel's i750 chip is also finished. This was followed by the development of video cards.

2.4 i750PD Chip
 ACTIONMEDIA III did not routinely develop the i750's third-generation i750PC/DC chip, resulting in the vacancy of the i750PC/DC numbering chip. The fourth generation is the i750PD (Video Compression Processor) chip.
 On November 15, 1993, ATI announced the Video basic capture card, which uses Intel's low-cost i750PD and ATI's ATI-68890 video capture chip. The chip below shows the ATI Video basic capture card is ES, the chip is labeled KU8270PD-25, it seems to be marked incorrectly, it should be KU82750PD-25. 

  ATI Video basic capture card Qualified Product

2.5 MAESTRO series
 The late stage of the i750 chip graphics project,lintel did not completely abandon the research and development of the i750 chip follow-up products, turned to simplified functions, low-cost video daughter cards and committed to selling i750 series chips to large companies such as ATI and Creative.

   MAESTRO III Evaluation board

    The MAESTRO III card has i750DB, i750SN and a chip without any label. This chip without any standard should be the next generation chip, because at this time Intel can not make the i750PB into a wordless version of ES. The i750SN chip should be the F122164PPM on the QUARK chip board.As can be seen from the date of the components used on the card, the i750PE chip was made in early 1994. For some reason, the final product of such a card structure has not been seen, or only the i750PE chip is evaluated, and the chip is prepared for the Smart video Recorder series.

2.6 Smart video Recorder series
 In the late stage of the ACTIONMEDIA II graphics card, INTEL removed the graphics display function of ACTIONMEDIA II and turned it into a Smart video Recorder series video capture card. Smart Video Recorder literally means a smart recorder that captures and compresses video analog signals into digital video files for playback and editing.
2.6.1 Smart video Recorder Product Evaluation board

  Smart video Recorder Product Evaluation board


2.6.2 Smart video Recorder Qualified Product

   Smart video Recorder Qualified Product

2.6.3 Smart video Recorder pro
 Although the ACTIONMEDIA III and MAESTRO projects were aborted, the BORG, CGA and i750PE chips were provided for the Smart video Recorder pro.Creative has similar products available.


2.6.4 Smart video Recorder III
 Smart Video Recorder III does not use INTEL's i750 series chips, nor is it the ISA/MCA interface used by INTEL's first-generation graphics cards. A PCI-based Smart Video Recorder III video card made an inexplicable end to INTEL's first-generation graphics card in 1996.

  Smart video Recorder III Qualified Product


    Intel's first-generation graphics project began in 1989 with ACTIONMEDIA, and finally in 1996 the Smart Video Recorder III, which lasted eight years. Because the products are rarely seen on personal computers, their popularity is so low that they are forgotten.

3.  2 years of granding (1997-1998)
    Intel's first generation of discrete graphics cards is based on the i750 chip ISA / MCA interface ACTIONMEDIA series graphics cards, and the second generation of discrete graphics cards is based on i740 chip AGP interface Express 3D series graphics cards. Intel did not develop a display chip for the PCI interface it invented. Maybe it is Intel's extreme confidence in the i750-based graphics card, or it may be that its technology reserves are insufficient and it missed the era of PCI graphics cards.

3.1 PCI graphic card

 Although Intel did not launch a display chip based on the PCI interface, there are still some PCI graphics cards related to Intel.

3.1.1 Purchase graphics chip

 Querying the FCCID shows that Intel has produced only one type of PCI graphics card. Its FCCID: EJMPCICL543X is a CL-543X series chip using Cirrus Logic. I have two models, one is a CL-5430 chip and the other is a CL-5434 chip. This PCI graphics card Intel has been used in HP computers in addition to its own use.

Intel PCICL5430

3.1.2 Purchase graphics card
 In the era of ISA graphics, Intel has used VIDEO 7 INC graphics cards. Intel, Intel also directly purchased graphics cards from PCI cards, such as ATi graphics cards.

ATi Mach32


3.1.3 ODM graphics card
 In the era of PCI graphics, Intel has a partnership with VIDEO 7 INC. SPEA Software AG acquired VIDEO 7 INC. SPEA Software AG gives Intel ODM PCI graphics cards.

Intel 928PCI


3.1.4 Acquisition of graphics card company
 In order to acquire the relevant technology, in July 1997, Intel acquired Chips & Technologies, which was the leader in 2D display design and R&D. Intel's move is not only to avoid the embarrassing situation that no graphics chip is available in the era of PCI graphics, but also a sign of vigorously entering the graphics card market.

   Chips & Technologies/Intel DKHIQV-PCI BOARD


    This DKHIQV-PCI Development board has an "INTEL" label.

3.2 i740 chip series graphics card
 Intel's second-generation discrete graphics card began in the second half of 1997 with the AGP interface graphics card developed by Intel and Real3D, codenamed "Auburn", and was released in January 1998.
 The i740 chip is manufactured in a 0.35 micron process and is a 64Bit graphics core with a core operating speed synchronized to the AGP bus at 66MHz. The i740 chip is the first true AGP 2X graphics card. Supports up to 8MB of SGRAM/SDRAM memory. The pixel fill rate is 55M Pixels/s, the triangle generation speed is 0.5-1M Trianglws/s triangle generation speed is 5-10 million per second, and the 203MHz RAMDAC is built in. Although the i740's 2D speed is average, its 3D performance is not bad, and it can fully support hardware DVD playback.
3.2.1 INTEL740 Evaluation board
 The following picture shows the intel i740 chip evaluation board. The right side of the front side of the PCB on the graphics card is marked with the "INTEL740 Evaluation board". The PCB date was 3497 and it appeared before August 1997. 

INTEL740 Evaluation board

   Although the i740 chip was developed by Real3d, the chip is marked with Intel's logo. It can be seen that intel pays attention to the i740 chip.
3.2.2 Real3D StarFighter-ISV Evaluation board
 This is the chip evaluation board of the i740 chip SDRAM memory version. It seems that Real3D and Intel are responsible for chip evaluation of SDRAM and SGRAM versions respectively.

StarFighter-ISV Evaluation board

 3.2.3 Intel740 Reference board
 The front right side of the PCB on the Intel i740 graphics card is labeled "INTEL740 reference board". Intel had planned to let other manufacturers make graphics cards according to this reference design. In fact, based on cost considerations, no one vendor used this luxurious design, and even Intel itself launched Express 3D graphics cards to be streamlined and streamlined.

 INTEL740 reference board

 3.2.4 Gainward Intel740 APAC Reference design
  In order to promote the i740 chip graphics card, Intel regards Gainward as the most important partner and commissions Gainward to design the Intel740 APAC REFERENCE DESIGN in the Asia-Pacific region. So it seems that Intel's own reference design is for the European and American version. In fact, this Asia-Pacific version of Gainward has never been used, nor is it used by other manufacturers. Why? Because in this design, not only the PCB board size is the same as the European and American version, it is very large, and the heat sink is also the largest of the i740 chip graphics cards, none of them.

Gainward Intel740 APAC Reference design

3.2.5 Express 3D

  On April 15, 1998, Intel officially released the express 3D graphics card, which is the first generation of Intel independent graphics card commonly used on the Internet. After reading the previous information, I think you will only agree that it is the first generation of Intel 3D graphics card. Express 3D Evaluation board
 Product evaluation board for Express 3D, date of manufacture 9804.

 Express 3D Evaluation board Express 3D Test board
 This Express 3D graphics card is a Test board that intel completes the design and is in trial production, which is no different from the official retail product. Compared with the Express 3D graphics Evaluation board, you can see obvious changes from the picture: the core version of the graphics card is upgraded, the BIOS version is updated from the 002 version to the 003 version that is consistent with the official product, and the failed certification is reduced from four to two. The two vertical rows of resistors under the fan interface change from full to full soldering. Also, the date of this card PCB is 98 years and 09 weeks, and the official release date of Express 3D graphics card is April 15, 1998, which is equivalent to 15 weeks in 1998. The test for the media evaluation agency is mainly the Test board before the release date.

  Express 3D Test board Express 3D SGRAM

  The first civilian-grade graphics card with fan cooling.

     Express 3D Qualified Product

  The shrink film of the Express 3D graphics card has an intel logo, as if opening the box would destroy its integrity. Take a look at the rabbit brother's collection.

(Source: t-cpu.com)

  Compared to the ACTIONMEDIA 750, the box of the Express 3D graphics card is really too small. Express 3D SDRAM
 Express 3D SDRAM memory version.

  Express 3D SDRAM Qualified Product

3.3 i752 chip series graphics card
   On April 27, 1999, Intel released i752 (codename: Portola) and i754 (codename: Coloma). The i752 uses a 128Bit graphics core with a core frequency of 100MHz and a maximum memory support of 133MHz and a maximum of 16MB. The pixel fill rate is 100M Pixels/s, the triangle generation speed is 3.3M Trianglws/s, and the built-in 250MHz RAMDAC. It adopts dual pixel pipeline to support environmental atomization, single-cycle texture synthesis, 16-bit Z-buffer, bump map, texture compression and other technologies. In addition, it has improved graphics acceleration performance that can be accelerated for various graphics streaming formats at the time. The difference between the two chips is that one supports AGP2× and one supports AGP4×.
   I752 and i754, this is just an improved product of the i740 with limited performance. The i752 chip shipments are limited, and only a small number of graphics cards have been produced by Gainward. The i754 chip project was withdrawn.
3.3.1 Intel752 Reference board
   The display chip date of this i752 reference board is 9917. 

Intel752 Reference board   

3.3.2 Gainward i752 commemorative card
 At Computex 99, intel sent the i752 graphics card to 50 lucky viewers, which is the Gainward i752. The only symbolic sale of the i752 chip graphics card. After reading the following pictures, you will understand why intel does not sell i752 chips.

  Gainward i752 commemorative card

i752 Chip

  The i752 chip above is a formal chip with a date of 9919.

  i752 chip engineering sample


    The above picture is a sample version of the i752 chip project submitted by friend NEST, dated at 9920, later than the official version of the Gengyu i752 commemorative card, 9919. It shows that the official version of the chip is not perfect, there are many problems, just intel in order not to jump the ticket, only to sell a very small number of i752 official chips. Because Intel has no energy to solve the problem after it becomes a graphics card, why? And listen to the next decomposition.


4.  20 years of growing(1999-present)
 The I740 chip graphics card is undoubtedly more successful, but it is at the low end in the graphics card market. At this time, the 3D graphics card market is full of smoke, INTEL enters the 3D graphics card market by buying and buying, Intel technology deposition is limited, technology integration, innovation takes time, can only find another way.
 On February 20, 1997, Cyrix launched the Media GX chip of the IT industry's first chip integration solution (All in One). This epoch-making concept, "Integration," was later understood by Intel and introduced an "Integrated Graphics" solution in early 1999. On April 26, the i810 chipset with integrated i740 display core was released. The i810 has achieved unprecedented success in the market and has contributed greatly to the popularity of integrated chipsets.
4.1 Integrated Graphics
 The i740 and i752 display cores are integrated into the north bridge chip of the i810/815 motherboard chipset, which shows that the core occupies part of the main memory of the computer during operation, which reduces the performance of the computer, but the cost and power consumption of the entire platform is lower.
4.1.1 i810 Series
 The question about whether the i810 integrates the i740 or the i752 display core has been debated. The display chip date of the i752 reference board in this paper is 9817, and the date of the i810 North Bridge chip integrated with the display core on the CA810 motherboard is 9816. It is impossible for the i810 chip to integrate the i752 display core, which is also in the engineering sample stage, and should be the i740 display core. 
 The i810 series has i810, i810E and i810E2. i810Chip
 The i810 chip was released on April 26, 1998, and the first cluster display board CA810 was released on June 25.

  i810 chip engineering sample

CA810 Mainboard Engineering Sample i810EChip
 Released on September 27, 1998. The difference between the i810E chip and the i810 chip is to support the 133MHZ FSB.
 his unknown brand-name motherboard uses a rare i810E engineering sample chip.

  i810E chip engineering sample


4.1.2 i815 Series
  The i815 chip has built-in i752 display chip and adds digital video signal output port (DVOP). There are four kinds of i815, i815E, i815G and i815EG. i815 Chip
  Released on June 19, 2000, the display core is the final result of the i752 graphics card project.

  i815 chip engineering sample

D815BN Mainboard Engineering Sample

4.1.3 Extreme Graphics Series
 In 2002, Intel introduced the i845G/E chipset with integrated "Extreme Graphics", which has significantly improved performance compared to the previous generation. The core frequency is 200MHz in the i845G, and the core frequency is 266MHz in the i845GE. The performance is close to that of Nvidia. Geforece2 MX 200, Extreme Graphics supports DVMT technology, which can dynamically call memory from the system, from the initial call 8MB to call 48MB.Products are i845G, i845GL, i845GV, i845GE. i845G

  i845GE Chip 

   The heat sink on the chip of this motherboard is soldered and cannot be removed. Only retail i845G chip pictures can be displayed.

i845G Mainboard Engineering Sample ADD expansion card (Advanced digital display)
 The ADD expansion card is not a stand-alone device. It must work in conjunction with the Intel Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) to provide high quality digital signal output. It provides an external graphics processing engine via a 1.5v AGP interface that provides digital signal output.
 Intel's PB C58792-002 ADD card adopts full-height design and supports DVI/video input and output. It is used in 845G series chipset motherboard. This card can output integrated graphics to the LCD through the AGP interface of the motherboard, and add extra Video input and output functions.

  PB C58792-002 Engineering Sample


4.1.4 Extreme Graphics II Series
 Intel has improved on Extreme Graphics and released Extreme Graphics II. Products are i865G, i865GV.

  i865GV Chip

MSI MS-7101 Mainboard Engineering Sample


4.1.5 Graphics Media AcceleratorSeries
 On June 21, 2004, GMA (Graphics Media Accelerator) Intel graphics chip was born. GMA is Intel's built-in graphics core product line from 2004 to 2008. Products are i910, i915, i945 series and so on.

  i945 Chip Engineering Sample


MSI MS-7161 Mainboard Engineering Sample

4.2 CPU with integrated graphics
 On the afternoon of January 8, 2010, Intel held a new Intel Core Launch Conference in Beijing. Intel officially released the latest revolutionary products worldwide, based on the new 32nm process Core i7, i5, i3 processor products. The Core i5/i3, which uses the Westmere architecture and is code-named Clarkdale, pioneered the integration of processors. It is the first CPU integrated with a GPU graphics core. The CPU is integrated with the GPU chip for the first time.
 Here are a few representative Core processors. 
4.2.1 Core 1st generation
  The new generation Core i3/i5 processor, code-named Clarkdale, is packaged on the same substrate as the CPU. Although the CPU/GPU is packaged on the same substrate for the first time, the CPU part and the GPU part are independent. The CPU part adopts the 32nm process, and the GPU part adopts the 45nm process. The name is changed from GMA to HD Graphic's GPU core frequency. At 733MHz, performance is up to 50% higher than the previous generation GMA X4500HD. Although Clarkdale has not yet fully integrated the two cores of CPU and GPU, it is already a big breakthrough.


 (Image courtesy of http://www.expreview.com)

Core i3 Desktop version engineering sample

  Core i3 mobile version Engineering sample

4.2.2 Core 2nd generation
 In January 2011, Intel released a new Sandy Bridge architecture, which first merged the GPU chip with the CPU, and the built-in graphics core was upgraded to HD Graphics 2000/3000. There are 6 and 12 EU programmable shaders respectively.

  Opened Core i3 2100

4.2.3 Core 4th generation

 Core 4th generation enhances display performance. Added eDRAM memory, supports 4K x 2K resolution, and upgraded high-speed video synchronization technology to make graphics images decode faster. The Intel HD Graphics 5200, codenamed GT3e, is called Iris Pro and has an eDRAM module that represents the strongest display performance of this generation.
 On the fourth generation of Core processor CPU board, there are two cores, the small core is eDRAM memory. From this Core CPU board, the CPU core is no longer monotonous, and there will always be other cores.


 4.3 Larrabee
 Intel's third-generation discrete graphics Larrabee was first announced at SIGGRAPH in 2008. Larrabee intends to build a stand-alone GPU and GPGPU using the x86 instruction set. It was originally expected that “Larrabee” will be launched in the third quarter of 2008 and officially released in 2009, but in fact there were engineering samples in 2009.


 (Source: ZZC's collection)

 On November 4, 2009, Intel officially announced that Larrabee will not be released as a consumer GPU product. Instead, it will compete with Nvidia Tesla as a development platform for graphics and high-performance computing. In 2010, Intel completely canceled Larrabee.
 Larrabee without a DVI interface is no longer called Larrabee, it is a CPU.

(Source: Collectibles from PCANG.com)

4.4 Unknown
 At the beginning of 2018, Intel first revealed the prototype of the fourth-generation discrete graphics card at the ISSCC 2018 International Solid-State Circuits Conference. The prototype graphics card was manufactured using the Intel 14nm process and integrated 1.524 billion transistors.
 Where is Intel going, will it open a new era? Wait and see!